I had been looking off and on for a few years for a way to insert a timestamp into a file in Notepad++, preferably by a hotkey. The no-longer-in-development TextFX plugin frequently comes up in Google searches as one way of doing this, but the plugin doesn’t offer any ability to customize the format of the date or time stamp.

I found this article: http://sourceforge.net/p/notepad-plus/discussion/331753/thread/3458d1da that explains, briefly, how to do this using the Python Script plugin. I’ve been curious about Python for awhile, too, so I was willing to give it a shot. The SourceForge project page for Python Script is at http://sourceforge.net/projects/npppythonscript/.

So, here’s a quick tutorial on adding a customizable insert datestamp/timestamp macro to Notepad++.

Download the Python Script plugin within Notepad++ by clicking Plugins | Plugin Manager | Show Plugin Manager, scrolling down the Available plugins list to Python Script, checking the box and clicking Install. After Notepad++ restart, Python Script will be a new addition to the Plugins menu.

To create the script that will insert the timestamp, click Plugins | Python Script | New Script. Enter a filename for the script file you are about to create, like “Time.py”, and click Save.

A new, blank tab will appear in Notepad++. Paste in the following text:

import time 
editor.addText( time.strftime( '%Y-%m-%d %I:%M %p' ) )

Save the Time.py file to the default location in your user profile.

Add the Time.py script to Notepad++ by clicking on Plugins | Python Script | Configuration, highlighting Time.py, clicking the Add button above Menu items, and then clicking OK.

But, you probably want to be able to run this as a macro from a keyboard shortcut. Close the Time.py tab and then exit and relaunch Notepad++. Click on Settings | Shortcut Mapper…, and choose the Plugin commands tab. The Time script should be listed here somewhere (in my case, it is sometimes at number 20 and other times at number 27). Highlight it and click Modify, and assign it to a shortcut.

I chose to map my Time script to F5, because this mirrors the timestamp functionality built into notepad.exe, but Notepad++ already uses that keystroke for the Run command. I never use the Run command, so I just remove the shortcut from that command by clicking on Settings | Shortcut Mapper…, and choosing the Main menu tab, scrolling down to the Run item and either removing the mapping by changing the shortcut to None or changing it to something else, such as Ctrl+F5. In my case, Run was located in the Shortcut mapper under Main menu at number 190 (and other times number 208). Close the Shortcut Mapper and you’re ready to use your new timestamp hotkey.

You can change the datetime formatting using variables! Just modify the contents of the Time.py file located at “%AppData%\Notepad++\plugins\Config\PythonScript\scripts”. See: http://docs.python.org/2/library/time.html#time.strftime

I asked Virgin Mobile USA today if, assuming I bought one from the Google Play Store, I could activate the new Nexus 5, and this is the response I received on Thu, Oct 31, 2013 at 9:44 PM:

Thanks for contacting Virgin Mobile Customer Care.

We want to let you know that is not possible to activate a non-Virgin Mobile phone like an unlocked one because our system only recognizes the unique serial numbers that our phones have. You will need to purchase a Virgin Mobile phone.

You can check our great phones and prices by clicking the link below: http://www.virginmobileusa.com/shop/cell-phones/

If you need additional assistance, feel free to let us know how we can assist further or contact us at 1-888-322-1122 (or *VM from your handset). You can reach us from Monday to Friday 6am -10pm and Weekends 6am -9pm. As a reminder, please include your Virgin Mobile phone number and PIN on all replies.

This is interesting, because as far as I know, Virgin Mobile actually uses the Sprint network, and Sprint is one of the carriers that will support the Nexus 5.

That’s right, the Nexus 5 will be sold through Sprint and T-Mobile, with only Verizon Wireless opting out of carrying the device. Updated at 3:26 p.m. PT: Google came back and confirmed that AT&T won’t be selling the Nexus 5, but it will be able to run on its network.

So, it looks like I’ll be jumping ship to T-Mobile after nearly two-and-a-half years as a satisfied customer of Virgin Mobile.

I like Akismet, and it’s undeniably effective in stopping the vast majority of spam, but it adds a huge number of comments to the database and a very small percentage of comments still get through to my moderation queue.

It’s annoying to find comments in my moderation queue, but what I really object to is the thousands of records that are added to the database each month that I don’t see.

In the screenshot below, January through April show very few spam comments being detected by Akismet. This is because I was using my cache-friendly method for reducing WordPress comment spam to block spam comments even before Akismet analyzed them.

Akismet stats

In May, I moved hosting providers to asmallorange.com and started with a fresh install of WordPress without implementing my custom spam method, which admittedly was not ideal because it involved changing core files. This left only Akismet between the spammers and my WordPress database. Since that time, instead of 150 or fewer spam comments per month making it into my WordPress database, Akismet was on pace to let in over 10,000.

So, in the spirit of fresh starts and doing things the right way, I created a WordPress plug-in that uses the same timestamp method. It’s actually exactly the same JavaScript and PHP code, just in plug-in form, so it’s not bound to any core files or theme files.

I am looking for cheap, shared web hosting because the downtime and customer support I’m getting with JustHost is intollerable (and well documented). I’m willing to pay about $10/month for hosting, and I don’t ask for much other than reasonable uptime. I have a blog (ardamis.com) that gets about 1000 visits per day, a few other sites that barely get any traffic, and a small photo gallery that I share only with family and friends. I don’t stream or make available for download any video or audio files, but I do want to be able to upload all of my personal photos and use my web host as an off-site backup. I have an account with Drop Box, but I have gigs of photos, so I would have to purchase extra storage, and I kinda want to keep the Drop Box stuff separate. I’ve also considered using Google Drive, but I have enough photos that I would need to purchase additional space.

I’m currently paying $108/year for hosting and an additional $19.99/year for a dedicated IP address. I’m willing to pay a little more, but not terribly much more.

Before JustHost, I was a GoDaddy customer for something like 5 years, and there was almost no downtime. Customer service was incredibly, suprisingly good and the reps were always knowlegeable and effective. I left because I didn’t like the proprietary admin panel that GoDaddy has developed and wanted to keep my domain registrar and my web host at separate companies. But really, there was nothing wrong with GoDaddy’s hosting at the time, that I could tell.

The problem with researching new web hosts is that unbiased information (if it’s out there) is buried under tons of completely untrustworthy garbage sites that sell reviews and rankings. If you look for personal recommendations based on experiences with multiple hosts, it is extremely hard to tell from the obscure bulletin board threads whether the posts come from shills or actual customers. Even if one finds posts that appear to be from genuine customers, their descriptions of their experiences are usually subjective, anecdotal, and not comparative.

(As a little aside, BlueHost, HostGator, HostMonster, and JustHost are all owned by the same corporate parent, Endurance International Group. An outage affecting one can affect them all, as described in the Mashable article: Bluehost, HostGator and HostMonster Go Down. So, take these things into consideration if you are trying to choose between them.)

This post, then, is just my notes on what I’ve found while researching my next web host.

No Host

One option would be to not go with a hosting company at all and just use Amazon EC2 to self-host my blog. I have seriously considered doing this, but by some accounts, it’s actually more expensive to run an EC2 instance than purchase shared hosting. And I don’t really want to become my own linux administrator. As much as I enjoy occasionally tinkering with Ubuntu, I just want my sites to run smoothly and for someone to keep the server up-to-date and to fix problems for me quickly if something breaks.



Everyone has heard of Bluehost. They’re huge. Their tagline is “Trusted by Millions as the Best Web Hosting Solution”. So there you have it. Maybe you want to be one of their millions of customers.

According to the builtwith.com profile for ardamis.com, the site’s hosting provider is not JustHost but BlueHost!

Their website has terribly low production values, for being such a huge company. They have a crappy stock photograph of a dude with a headset providing customer support, below the text “We specialize in customer service. Call or Chat!” I do not want to live chat with this dude, or anyone else. I probably don’t need any customer service from my hosting company unless they screw something up, so prominently featuring your support phone numbers make me wonder if they get tons of calls.

They do have cPanel, which is nice, as I am wary of proprietary admin panels after using GoDaddy for years.

They also offer unlimited domains, unlimited storage, unlimited bandwith, unlimited email accounts, and a free domain. They also offer custom php.ini files and SSH access. And they do all of this for just $6.95/month for 1 year.

It actually sounds pretty decent, on paper. But one does get the sense that they are completely driven by the bottom-line, and that your site is going to be jammed into an already crowded server.



HostGator is the other huge discount web hosting company, competing with BlueHost and GoDaddy for what I picture to be the same sort of confused customers or WordPress blog/Google Adsense scammers.

Like with BlueHost, I’m immediately turned off by the website, which is just ugly as all get out and also conspicuously promotes Live Chat support with a stock photograph of a girl with a (wired) headset. The pricing for the hosting plans is also a bit misleading, as all of the pricing shown is discounted 20%, which discount is only valid for the first invoice.

Another thing I really dislike is that there are three tiers of shared hosting, named “Hatchling Plan”, “Baby Plan”, and “Business Plan”. I just can’t see myself signing up for the ridiculously named “Hatchling Plan” or “Baby Plan”. Which is probably by design so that people like me upgrade to the more respectable and grown-up sounding “Business Plan”.

They do offer a single free website transfer for shared hosting, whether or not the site being transferred uses cPanel.

Lithium Hosting


I first heard about Lithium Hosting while reading the ars technica article How to set up a safe and secure Web server, which also mentioned A Small Orange.

Their site looks pretty good, but it’s a little bit too template-like, and I felt that a quick glance on themeforest.net would turn up about a dozen hosting reseller templates for which the layout and stock placeholder text is an almost exact match. For example, the tagline on their home page is “Why we’re not the best host in the world.” Yeah, that sort of false modesty smells just a bit too contrived here. I was almost ready to sign up with Lithium Hosting, but the cookie-cutter stuff gave me enough pause to keep looking.

One of the things that I didn’t like is that they offer a free month coupon code, but it doesn’t work when you configure your cart to pay a year-at-a-time. Another thing I didn’t like was the $36/year cost of a dedicated IP address – $5 to set up and then $3 per month thereafter. It seems like the price on dedicated IP addresses has dramatically increased in the months since all the breathless news reports about the world running out of IPv4 addresses. They also charge an extra $60/year for shell access via SSH. That’s pretty shameful.

Bailing out of the cart just before purchase doesn’t cause a window to pop up an lure you back with a discount, as I fully expected to happen.

I checked out their Facebook page and the most recent post was from a guy who’s website was down. Two other recent posts were about downtime.

At the end of the day, Lithium Hosting just seems too much like a hosting reseller itself than a company that will be around for years.

A Small Orange


I first heard about A Small Orange while reading the same ars technica article How to set up a safe and secure Web server that mentioned Lithium Hosting.

My first impression of the site was that it looked pretty much exactly as I wanted my hosting company to look. Again, I’m being pretty superficial here, but I want to be happy with my choice and if the company’s outward appearance is cruddy then I’m not going to be as satisfied. I want to be certain that I made the best choice, and a crappy, thrown-together-looking site injects a small amount of doubt. The site clearly sets out the costs of the different hosting plans, and I knew I would be looking at shared hosting first. There are five tiers of shared hosting, the least expensive being $35/year for 250 MB storage and 5 GB bandwidth. Basically, the only differentiating factor between the different levels of shared hosting is the amount storage and bandwidth. The standard features for all shared hosting accounts include:

  • Unlimited Parked and Addon Domains
  • Unlimited Subdomains
  • Unlimited POP3/IMAP Mail Accounts
  • Unlimited MySQL Databases
  • Unlimited FTP Accounts
  • Automated Daily Backups
  • cPanel
  • Automatic Script Installation (Softaculous)
  • Jailed shell upon request
  • FTP and SFTP access
  • Cron jobs for scheduled tasks
  • 99.9% uptime guarantee

A Small Orange uses CloudLinux as the server OS.

OK, yes, there is still a Live Chat button, but it’s this inconspicuous little green tab at the left side of the window that states “live help”. That’s it.

I checked out their Facebook page for recent posts, and they were almost entirely positive, with a good amount of interaction from the admin. The page claims that the company is home to 45,000 web sites, which might be exactly what I’m looking for, without even knowing it.

One of the things that ultimately convinced me to go with them was the Inc.com write up of CEO Douglas Hanna in America’s coolest College Start-Ups 2012 and the Duke Chronical article Hanna makes juicy profits with A Small Orange. Hanna worked at HostGator for two years in customer service, so one could reasonably expect that he knows what customers want in affordable hosting.

I have also found a ton of coupon codes for A Small Orange (just Google it) for either $5 or 15% off your order.


November was a rough month for ardamis.com. What are JustHost’s thoughts on uptime?

The term uptime refers to the amount of time that the website will be accessible. It is important to remember that unforeseen events do occur and that uptime guarantees are not written in stone. That being said, however, any established web hosting provider worthy of your business will strive to guarantee no less than 99.5% uptime.


Here’s my Pingdom Monthly Report for 2012-11-01 to 2012-11-30 for ardamis.com. Boy, those 34 outages for a total of 6 hours and 45 minutes (0.94%) sure feels like a lot of downtime.

Uptime Outages Response time
99.06% 34 1665 ms


From To Downtime
2012-11-02 06:14:08 2012-11-02 06:29:08 0h 15m 00s
2012-11-02 07:19:08 2012-11-02 07:44:10 0h 25m 02s
2012-11-05 22:54:09 2012-11-05 22:59:08 0h 04m 59s
2012-11-05 23:09:08 2012-11-05 23:19:08 0h 10m 00s
2012-11-07 14:24:09 2012-11-07 14:34:08 0h 09m 59s
2012-11-10 11:49:08 2012-11-10 11:54:08 0h 05m 00s
2012-11-10 12:09:08 2012-11-10 12:14:08 0h 05m 00s
2012-11-10 13:44:08 2012-11-10 13:49:10 0h 05m 02s
2012-11-10 15:24:08 2012-11-10 15:29:08 0h 05m 00s
2012-11-10 16:24:08 2012-11-10 16:29:09 0h 05m 01s
2012-11-10 16:49:08 2012-11-10 16:54:08 0h 05m 00s
2012-11-10 22:29:08 2012-11-10 22:34:08 0h 05m 00s
2012-11-11 22:34:08 2012-11-11 22:39:08 0h 05m 00s
2012-11-12 17:54:08 2012-11-12 17:59:08 0h 05m 00s
2012-11-17 00:49:08 2012-11-17 02:59:08 2h 10m 00s
2012-11-18 14:19:08 2012-11-18 14:24:08 0h 05m 00s
2012-11-19 03:54:08 2012-11-19 04:04:08 0h 10m 00s
2012-11-23 15:09:08 2012-11-23 15:24:08 0h 15m 00s
2012-11-23 15:44:08 2012-11-23 15:49:08 0h 05m 00s
2012-11-23 16:49:08 2012-11-23 16:54:08 0h 05m 00s
2012-11-26 10:04:08 2012-11-26 10:09:08 0h 05m 00s
2012-11-27 07:54:08 2012-11-27 07:59:08 0h 05m 00s
2012-11-27 15:24:08 2012-11-27 15:29:08 0h 05m 00s
2012-11-27 20:29:08 2012-11-27 20:34:08 0h 05m 00s
2012-11-27 21:34:08 2012-11-27 21:39:08 0h 05m 00s
2012-11-27 22:19:08 2012-11-27 22:24:08 0h 05m 00s
2012-11-27 23:54:08 2012-11-27 23:59:08 0h 05m 00s
2012-11-28 06:14:08 2012-11-28 06:19:08 0h 05m 00s
2012-11-28 06:24:08 2012-11-28 06:49:08 0h 25m 00s
2012-11-28 06:54:08 2012-11-28 06:59:08 0h 05m 00s
2012-11-28 07:04:08 2012-11-28 07:24:08 0h 20m 00s
2012-11-30 06:44:08 2012-11-30 06:49:08 0h 05m 00s
2012-11-30 07:04:08 2012-11-30 07:29:08 0h 25m 00s
2012-11-30 12:04:09 2012-11-30 12:09:08 0h 04m 59s
Copyright © 2012 Pingdom AB

That’s just a really pretty sad report.

I have got to be better about catching my contract before it automatically renews. I’m looking at Lithium Hosting and a small orange as replacements, as they seem to be well-regarded by Ars Technica readers.

This post was originally written in October, 2012, and has been updated twice – first in January, 2013, while using “2012-12-16-wheezy-raspbian” and then again in February, 2014, while using “2014-01-07-wheezy-raspbian” – in all cases using the latest Raspbian release at the time and the latest versions of Emulation Station, RetroArch, and other software mentioned below. So, if you encounter instructions that don’t exactly jive with what you’re seeing, it’s probably because the software continues to change and my instructions have fallen out-of-date. If you get confused, please leave me a comment and I’ll try to help.

After playing around aimlessly a bit with my Raspberry Pi in 2012 (most recently, an install of the very nice RaspBMC), I thought of a useful purpose for it while showing my kids Super Mario Bros. and The Legend of Zelda running on the VirtualNES emulator on my Windows laptop. Before they get too spoiled on the Xbox 360′s graphics and sound, I want to get them some exposure to a few of the simple but influential 8-bit games from my childhood. At the same time, I don’t want my laptop to become the family’s gaming machine. We have a pretty massive TV and plenty of Xbox 360 controllers, so I figured I could throw the Raspberry Pi into the mix and come out with a neat retro gaming console.

Metroid running on my Raspberry Pi

Metroid running on my Raspberry Pi

As with all things Linux, the devil is in the details. Like, can you get the application to work with both video and sound, and are all of the peripherals fully functional? Add to that the uncertainty of the performance of Linux applications on the particular hardware limitations of the Raspberry Pi, and any simple-seeming project quickly develops into a series of hair-pulling and-now-this-doesn’t-work type obstacles. Case in point, a Google search as I began the project in October, 2012, turned up a number of people who had already thought of turning their Raspberry Pi’s into 80′s game console emulators, and it quickly became obvious that this wasn’t going to be a completely painless process.

This post on the Raspberry Pi forum from a few months earlier basically summed it up.

I have a NES emulator working without sound, using the Debian image, will only work running through console no LXDE

sudo apt-get install fceu
cd /usr/games
./fceu -input1 gamepad -inputcfg gamepad1 /home/pi/mario_bros.zip

Command above will map gamepad buttons to your keyboard, and load game image path you specify. Appears to work fine apart from no sound, I’ve had a few levels on Mario Bros.

Not tried with a joypad, I have a wireless xbox360 joypad that is discovered as a usb device, but have not had chance to try to get it working yet. It doesn’t work by default


Yikes! Emulation with no sound and keyboard-only input is considered a success! And then a reply to that already discouraging post makes the landscape seem even more bleak.

Oh yeah, that’s the one! I tried to use mednafen, but even disabling openGL so it would use SDL for graphics would only give me a blank screen. I’ve tried to find some console emulators that use openGLES but every time I find one, it turns out that it’s only available as a pre-assembled package for platform x.


Well, posts like those from people who certainly seem pretty well informed about console emulation would certainly dissuade most human beings from settling on this as a weekend project. But thankfully for us, plenty of people far smarter than I have been diligently working at converting their Raspberry Pi’s into something resembling a game console, and you and I can now directly benefit from their labor. I’m happy to report that I am getting decently playable NES emulation with sound (and slightly-less-satisfactory SNES emulation) from my Raspberry Pi after a few hours of struggle. And what with how quickly I’m willing to reformat the SD card with a different image (what? an update to RaspBMC?), I thought I should document my steps for posterity.

One of the most frustrating things about doing anything in Linux after living in Windows is that it rarely works as smoothly as you would expect and it takes some patience to get past the hurdles. On top of that, when you turn to Google for help, forum threads typically assume the readers will have more than a passing familiarity with the Linux file structure, command line input, Make files, and the like. Once I eventually track down something that looks like a possible fix, I often find myself searching for help on just exactly how to implement the fix, which advice frequently turns out to be out-of-date and no longer applicable.

So, for those of us who are not going to know how to chmod +x a shell script without some hand-holding, here are the steps I’ve followed so far, that are hopefully detailed enough that you end up with a working RPi game console instead of a smashed bit of PCB and some seething frustration. At times, I assume that you’re still using the ‘pi’ user account, but if you’re not, you’ll probably be able to recognize where you need to substitute your new account. If you can see where I’m definitely doing stuff horribly wrong, please leave a comment and I’ll try to make it better.

Learning a few new tricks here

Learning a few new tricks here

Steps to set up the SD card and configure Raspbian with the necessary software

1. On your main computer (I’ll go out on a limb and assume you’re running Windows here), get the latest release of Rasbian from the Raspberry Pi Downloads page, extract the image file, format your (4 GB or larger) SD card using SD Formatter 4.0 and write the Raspbian disk image to your SD card using win32diskimager. I’ve used win32diskimager successfully more than once, but it will complain at me every time.

Connect the Raspberry Pi to a TV or monitor (I greatly prefer the HDMI out, but the composite output is fine if that’s all you have), connect a USB keyboard (my superstitious nature makes me connect it to the bottom USB port), and connect an Ethernet cable to your router because 1) the Raspberry Pi will need Internet access during setup and 2) your life will be easier if the Raspberry Pi can also talk with a computer on your home network. You can also connect your wired Xbox controller or Xbox 360 Wireless Gaming Receiver dongle thingie now, if you like. Power on the Raspberry Pi and use the spacebar, tab, arrow and enter keys to navigate through the raspi-config utility (it should run automatically at the first boot) to

  1. expand the root partition to fill the SD card
  2. change the internationalization options – language, timezone, and keyboard – as appropriate (this actually is important)
  3. enable the SSH server (in Advanced Options)

Choose finish and reboot the Raspberry Pi by typing the command:

sudo shutdown -r now

And then hitting Enter. Each time I specify a line of input, like the one above, hit the Enter key at the end to execute it.

After the Raspberry Pi restarts, write down its IP address, which is reported in the lines just before the login prompt.

I typically overclock my Raspberry Pi to the Modest setting (800MHz), but I don’t know if this makes any difference, so you can play with this to meet your needs. I run the original Model B board with 256 MB memory, and while it’s sometimes recommended to bump up the memory split to allocate 192 MB to the GPU, it hasn’t been necessary in my experience. If you need to run the raspi-config utility again to change any of these settings, open a terminal (Alt+F1 through Alt+F6) and enter

sudo raspi-config

I recommend against changing the setting that causes the Raspberry Pi to boot straight into the desktop, as the Emulation Station and RetroArch stuff that comes later is best launched from the terminal immediately after logging in (and not from a window within X) and offers something of a GUI anyway.

2. Back on the Windows computer, download PuTTY, which is an application that will allow you to access the command prompt on the RPi (RPi is easier to type, so I’ll be using this shorthand frequently) from your Windows computer across your home network. Launch PuTTY, connect to the RPi using its IP address, and log in (username: pi and password: raspberry). A great thing about accessing the RPi via PuTTY is that you can send command lines to the RPi by copying them from your favorite web browser in Windows and pasting them into the PuTTY window, saving you from typing in lots of unfamiliar and sometimes lengthy Linux commands.

3. In the PuTTY window, get Raspbian up-to-date by updating the package lists from the repositories and retrieving new versions of existing packages with

sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade -y

4. Still in the PuTTY window, install GIT, vim, xboxdrv, and other useful software with

sudo apt-get install -y git vim dialog xboxdrv

Then reboot the RPi with

sudo shutdown -r now

5. Because the next part – installing RetroArch, the console emulators, and Emulation Station – takes a long time, I recommend either a) using the USB-connected keyboard on the RPi or b) using the screen command (here’s a good introduction to screen) if you are connecting to the RPi with PuTTY. I mention this because if your PuTTY session drops, the shell in which the commands are running will terminate and interrupt any running process. If this happens, you will have to run the setup script again (but you won’t necessarily know how far along it got before it terminated).

Whichever way you choose to connect, follow the instructions at RetroPie-Setup: An initialization script for RetroArch on the Raspberry Pi to install RetroArch for the Raspberry Pi. I would recommend using the source-code based installation, as it’s unclear how often the binaries are compiled. You can leave the options for installing components at their defaults, but I generally deselect the cores (the console emulators) that I don’t want or that I expect won’t work very well on the RPi. The installation may take hours, but the fewer emulator cores you choose to install, the faster it will go. Reboot at the end of the RetroArch installation.

6. The next step is to copy your ROMs into the appropriate, console-named subdirectory under /home/pi/RetroPie/roms/ on the RPi. There are a few different ways to do this. You can put them on a FAT-32 formatted USB flash drive and then transfer them to the RPi via command line, or you can launch the desktop with startx and drag-and-drop them, but I find that it’s much easier to use WinSCP to copy files from a Windows machine to the RPi across the network. (You can also use WinSCP to copy config files between the Raspberry Pi and your Windows machine, where you can edit them in a more familiar text editor. More on this later.)

Contrary to the advice below, at least for NES ROMs, both the .nes and .NES file extensions are acceptable. But if you’re having problems with ROMs for other systems, you may consider looking at the extensions.

Make sure that the extensions of your roms are lowercase and correspond to those given in /home/pi/.emulationstation/es_systems.cfg. You can show the content of that file with “cat /home/pi/.emulationstation/es_systems.cfg”.

Note: In my experience, if you have chosen not to install most of the emulator cores, you will need to put at least one ROM in at least one console emulator’s ROMs directory in order for Emulation Station to start up successfully. I ran into a problem when I chose not to install any cores except for NES, and then tried to start Emulation Station for the first time before I copied any NES ROMs to the RPi. Instead of the Emulation Station starting up the gamepad configuration wizard, I got only a black screen with a small white dot in the center and spent hours thinking that something was wrong with Raspian/Emulation Station/Retroarch/the RPi itself, etc.

This dot is the “fake” SDL window ES uses to get input. Actual rendering is done through OpenGL ES. If all you see is this dot, then odds are something went wrong initializing the OpenGL ES surface. Are you sure you’re running at least the 192/64mb memory split?

That takes care of the basics. Now you can launch the Emulation Station, which is the front-end we’ll be interacting with, to choose between different game systems and within them, different individual games, by logging into the RPi using the USB keyboard and entering


Emulation Station does not like to be started from an SSH connection. Manually starting Emulation Station each time is optional, as it is possible to launch the Emulation Station automatically at start up, though I use the RPi for a few different things so I don’t actually want this behavior at each boot and just launch it myself if I’m there to play a game.

The first time that you launch Emulation Station, it will guide you through setting up either a keyboard or controller for navigating between the various consoles and launching games. These settings are saved to a config file named es_input.cfg and located in the hidden directory at ~/.emulationstation/es_input.cfg. (Files and directories with names that begin with a dot are hidden, so they won’t show up with a regular ls command, but they will show up if you use ls -a and they are displayed by default in WinSCP.) If you ever want to go through the wizard again to set up a keyboard or controller, delete that file and launch Emulation Station.

If you want to modify es_input.cfg by hand, it’s easy enough to transfer it to your Windows computer using WinSCP and open it in a text editor. One advantage of editing the file is that you can run through the wizard twice – configuring a keyboard the first time and a controller the second – and create two es_input.cfg files that you then splice together in a text editor to create a single file so that you can navigate through Emulation Station by either the keyboard or the controller. This is what my es_input.cfg file looks like, with mostly intuitive controls for the keyboard and an Xbox 360 controller:

<?xml version="1.0"?>
	<inputConfig type="keyboard">
		<input name="a" type="key" id="13" value="1" />
		<input name="b" type="key" id="8" value="1" />
		<input name="down" type="key" id="274" value="1" />
		<input name="left" type="key" id="276" value="1" />
		<input name="menu" type="key" id="303" value="1" />
		<input name="pagedown" type="key" id="281" value="1" />
		<input name="pageup" type="key" id="280" value="1" />
		<input name="right" type="key" id="275" value="1" />
		<input name="select" type="key" id="32" value="1" />
		<input name="up" type="key" id="273" value="1" />
	<inputConfig type="joystick" deviceName="Microsoft X-Box 360 pad">
		<input name="a" type="button" id="0" value="1" />
		<input name="b" type="button" id="1" value="1" />
		<input name="down" type="axis" id="1" value="1" />
		<input name="left" type="axis" id="0" value="-1" />
		<input name="menu" type="button" id="6" value="1" />
		<input name="pagedown" type="button" id="5" value="1" />
		<input name="pageup" type="button" id="4" value="1" />
		<input name="right" type="axis" id="0" value="1" />
		<input name="up" type="axis" id="1" value="-1" />

You can compare the contents of my file to your own in order to get an idea of what buttons are mapped to stuff I’ve never actually used in Emulation Station, like the Page Up and Page Down commands.

Ridley is easy, like this tutorial

Ridley is easy, like this tutorial

Your Raspberry Pi now has all the necessary software to emulate games and accept input from your Xbox 360 controller. It’s now time to…

Configure the controller for games

Once you have those components installed, it’s time for the next step in any Linux project: discover what’s not working. (I have a long, involved tale about the many futile hours I spent trying to map all of the buttons on my old Logitech MX510 mouse, but I digress…)

Back in 2012, a wired (and potentially wireless) Xbox 360 controller wouldn’t automatically work, and unless you were content using the keyboard in games, you wanted to get it working ASAP. You could connect the controller, and you might get the ring of lights to pulse, but you would need to crank up xboxdrv, a userspace driver for Xbox controllers, before you could do anything with it.

As of 2014, Xbox controller support is integrated into Emulation Station and RetroAarch, but if you are curious about how we did it in the good old days, I strongly recommend reading through the list of xboxdrv switches, particularly if something doesn’t work as expected or if you need to figure out why the triggers and analog sticks aren’t mapping.

Even though the controller and the RPi are talking, you need to configure RetroArch to work with it. It is certainly possible to do all the text file editing and copying by using the included Leafpad editor in LXDE, which is the graphical interface on the Raspbian distribution, or in your editor of choice on your Windows computer while transferring the files back and forth with WinSCP, as I normally do, but this is a rather geeky project so I feel that I should at least mention the text-only vim editor that you can run within a terminal, and so I’m going to use it briefly in this case. In the PuTTY window, enter the following code to create a back up copy of the default RetroArch configuration file that is used by all of the console emulators:

cp ~/RetroPie/configs/all/retroarch.cfg ~/RetroPie/configs/all/retroarch.cfg.bak

Then open the live file for editing in vim with:

vim ~/RetroPie/configs/all/retroarch.cfg

I think it’s good to get some idea of the many options within RetroArch, so I really recommend looking through this file, as you may need to come back later and tweak it to resolve problems with sound in games. When you’re done looking around, exit vim without saving the file by typing


Then hit Enter. See, nothing to it.

Back on the USB keyboard attached to the RPi, log in and enter

cd ~/RetroPie/emulators/RetroArch/tools

This puts you in the directory containing the retroarch-joyconfig utility that you’ll use to set up the controller. (If you’re getting an error message about files or directories not being found, you may be using a US keyboard but the RPi is still set to a UK keyboard layout. This would cause the tilde key “~” on the keyboard to enter a logical negation symbol “¬” instead. The tilde in a path in Linux is expanded to be the current user’s home directory, and the logical negation symbol is not. Re-read step 1 for instructions on how to launch the raspi-config utility to change the keyboard layout.)

Launch the retroarch-joyconfig utility with the line:

./retroarch-joyconfig -o p1.cfg -p 1 -j 0

Follow the instructions to push the buttons and move the sticks/triggers/dpad. (The -o switch causes the output to be sent to a file, p1.cfg, otherwise, the output is just echo’d to the screen, which is interesting but doesn’t help us set up RetroArch.) If you mess up, just keep pressing buttons until the utility exits and then start all over again by relaunching the utility with the same command line.

Xbox 360 controller

Xbox 360 controller (click to enlarge)

When you’re satisfied that you have pushed all the right buttons, you should have a p1.cfg file located at ~/RetroPie/emulators/RetroArch/tools. The contents of this file is what will eventually tell RetroArch and each of the various system emulators how to interpret the commands coming from the primary, first controller, but it needs to be appended to the end of that retroarch.cfg file first. To do this, enter:

sudo cat p*.cfg >> ~/RetroPie/configs/all/retroarch.cfg

The end of my retroarch.cfg file looks like this, after I appended the p1.cfg file to it and then further edited it by hand to add some extra commands for exiting the emulator and saving and loading gamestates (one of the best things about playing games on an emulator is that you can save the current state of the game at anytime, and later resume from that point in time, so you don’t need to rely on in-game saves).

input_player1_joypad_index = "0"
input_player1_b_btn = "1"
input_player1_y_btn = "3"
input_player1_select_btn = "6"
input_player1_start_btn = "7"
input_player1_up_axis = "-7"
input_player1_down_axis = "+7"
input_player1_left_axis = "-6"
input_player1_right_axis = "+6"
input_player1_a_btn = "0"
input_player1_x_btn = "2"
input_player1_l_btn = "4"
input_player1_r_btn = "5"
input_player1_l2_axis = "+2"
input_player1_r2_axis = "+5"
input_player1_l3_btn = "9"
input_player1_r3_btn = "10"
input_player1_l_x_plus_axis = "+0"
input_player1_l_x_minus_axis = "-0"
input_player1_l_y_plus_axis = "+1"
input_player1_l_y_minus_axis = "-1"
input_player1_r_x_plus_axis = "+3"
input_player1_r_x_minus_axis = "-3"
input_player1_r_y_plus_axis = "+4"
input_player1_r_y_minus_axis = "-4"

# Hold the back or select button (6) while pressing another button for 
# special actions, like...
input_enable_hotkey_btn = 6

# ...the Xbox Guide button (8) to exit the emulator
input_exit_emulator_btn = 8

# ...the left bumper (4) to save the game state to the current slot
input_save_state_btn = "4"

# ...the right bumper (5) to load the game state from the current slot
input_load_state_btn = "5"

Note to self: I need to update this tutorial with instructions on how to configure multiple controllers.

Each console emulator can have its own retroarch.cfg file that overrides the settings in the default file at ~/RetroPie/configs/all/retroarch.cfg. For the NES emulator, the retroarch.cfg file lives at ~/RetroPie/configs/nes/retroarch.cfg (in a /nes/ directory under /configs/, at the same level as /all/). If you are using an Xbox 360 controller and don’t configure the NES retroarch.cfg file specifically, the B and A buttons will be reversed from the original controller layout, and you’ll have to use the D-pad (which is not great) instead of the left analog stick.

In case you don’t remember the button layout of the NES controller…

NES controller

NES controller (click to enlarge)

So, I would strongly recommend dropping the following file into ~/RetroPie/configs/nes/retroarch.cfg for a better experience.

# All settings made here will override the global settings for the current emulator core

# The original Nintendo controller has the B button on the left and the A button on the right
# which is reverse of the Xbox 360 button layout.  Your ten-year-old self wants you to fix this
input_player1_b_btn = "0"
input_player1_a_btn = "1"

# It would be nice to be able to use the left joystick as well as the D-pad in Nintendo games
# but it seems to be an either-or situation, because only the _axis buttons are honored
input_player1_up_axis = "-1"
input_player1_down_axis = "+1"
input_player1_left_axis = "-0"
input_player1_right_axis = "+0"

Now you should be all set to play NES games using the Xbox 360 controller with pretty intuitive controls. The Xbox 360 controller-to-Nintendo controller mappings are as follows: the left analog stick replaces the D-pad, the A and B buttons are the B and A buttons, the Back button is the Select button, and the Start button is the Start button.

In a hurry to see Mother Brain again

In a hurry to see Mother Brain again

The Super Nintendo controller has four buttons, like the Xbox 360 controller, but the X/Y and A/B buttons are reversed. If you’re going to be emulating SNES, you’ll most likely want to make an SNES-specific retroarch.cfg file for that game system, too.

This is my best-guess for a Super Nintendo retroarch.cfg, without actually having tested it yet.

# All settings made here will override the global settings for the current emulator core

rewind_enable = false

# The Super Nintendo controller's button layouts are the reverse of the Xbox 360 controller
input_player1_b_btn = "0"
input_player1_y_btn = "2"
input_player1_a_btn = "1"
input_player1_x_btn = "3"

# It would be nice to be able to use the left joystick as well as the d-pad in Super Nintendo games
# but it seems to be an either-or situation, because only the _axis buttons are honored
input_player1_up_axis = "-1"
input_player1_down_axis = "+1"
input_player1_left_axis = "-0"
input_player1_right_axis = "+0"

OK. The controllers should now work as expected in games. So…

Get impatient and try playing a game

Assuming you haven’t had any insurmountable problems with the directions above, you should be able to get into a game in a few simple steps:

1. plug everything into the RPi (USB keyboard, HDMI output to TV/monitor, and a wired Xbox 360 controller or Xbox 360 wireless gaming receiver dongle)
2. turn on the Xbox controller (if you need to link the controller with the dongle, you may have to reboot once this has been done before the RPi will see it)
3. power on the RPi (or reboot with sudo shutdown -r now from a terminal) and log in as the ‘pi’ user
4. at the prompt, type emulationstation to launch the Emulation Station front-end
5. use the arrow keys on the keyboard or the left analog stick on the Xbox 360 controller to browse the game systems and ROMs and the Enter key or A button to launch a game system or game.

And you should definitely pat yourself on the back for getting this far.

But your game probably won’t have sound.

Wrestle with the sound

I’m using a pair of headphones plugged into the analog jack, and while many people report that the game’s audio when output through HDMI is generally fine, the audio out through the analog jack was decidedly not fine with the default settings back in October, 2012. The sound would start off fine, but within 20-30 seconds it started becoming increasingly choppy and a few moments later I was ripping off the headphones. I Googled this a ton, and eventually used the options recommended at https://github.com/petrockblog/RetroPie-Setup/wiki/Sound-Issues by uncommenting and/or editing these lines in the retroarch.cfg file. Depending on your experience, you can do so using vim or your text editor via WinSCP:

audio_enable = true
audio_out_rate = 44100
audio_driver = sdl

I had read a bit about ALSA and very little about SDL, but from what I could tell, it boiled down to ALSA (which was in alpha on the Raspberry Pi in late 2012) should be faster than SDL once ALSA is working completely. If ALSA is not working completely or if the RPi is under considerable load, we are better off using something else, and that something else seems to be SDL.

When I rebuilt the RPi in 2014, I still had to modify the audio settings in retroarch.cfg, but I found that ALSA worked fine. The settings I’m currently using are:

# Enable audio.
audio_enable = true

# Audio output samplerate.
audio_out_rate = 44100

# Audio driver backend. Depending on configuration possible candidates are: alsa, pulse, oss, jack, rsound, roar, openal, sdl, xaudio.
audio_driver = alsa

Using these settings also avoids the warning message visible in the console when RetroArch exits while the sound is misconfigured:
RetroArch [WARN] :: Audio rate control was desired, but driver does not support needed features.

So that’s it, you should be able to play those old NES games now, with the glorious, mesmerizing 8-bit sound, but with the far more comfortable Xbox 360 controller.

The Esc key on the keyboard will exit the game and return to the Emulation Station GUI, by default, and if you’ve used my retroarch.cfg file above, you can do this with the controller by holding the Back button and pressing the silver Xbox Guide button.

Great !!

Great !!

What else?

The keyboard is still convenient for saving and loading game states, and I don’t know if all of the functions can be mapped to buttons on the controller (it sounds like it’s not possible), so it stays within reach for now. To enable keyboard shortcuts to save and load save states, uncomment the following lines in retroarch.cfg.

# Saves state.
input_save_state = f2
# Loads state.
input_load_state = f4

# State slots. With slot set to 0, save state name is *.state (or whatever defined on commandline).
# When slot is != 0, path will be $path%d, where %d is slot number.
input_state_slot_increase = f7
input_state_slot_decrease = f6

While playing a game:
F2 – save state to current slot (defaults to slot 0)
F4 – load state from current slot (defaults to slot 0)
F6 – decrease the save slot (defaults to slot 0)
F7 – increase the save slot (defaults to slot 1)

Other useful features can be enabled in retroarch.cfg by uncommenting the lines:

# Mute/unmute audio
input_audio_mute = f9

# Take screenshot
input_screenshot = f8

While playing a game:
F8 – take a screenshot (saved to the ROM’s directory by default, but this is configurable)
F9 – mute audio

The rewind feature in RetroArch is also awesome, and allows to you literally rewind the game – going back in time a few seconds so that you can replay it differently. This comes at a CPU and storage cost, so you may or may not see a performance hit when rewind is enabled. To enable rewind, uncomment the line:

# Enable rewinding. This will take a performance hit when playing, so it is disabled by default.
rewind_enable = true

While in the Emulation Station GUI (such as it is):
Arrow keys – navigate through ROMs and systems (consoles)
Enter – launch the selected ROM
F1 – adjust the settings (including the master volume), restart or shutdown the Raspberry Pi
F4 – terminate Emulation Station and return to the command prompt in the terminal

Recently, themes for each console have been developed for the Emulation Station, which I think everyone who saw it in 2012 would agree really needed a designer’s touch. I would recommend experimenting with the ES Scraper utility, which should download themes for the consoles and boxart for your games automatically.

So that’s that. I’m playing Final Fantasy and Super Mario Bros. 3 for the first time in years, and it’s pretty neat.

Outstanding problems

Some games, or maybe all games that scroll from top to bottom, but certainly Final Fantasy and Dragon Warrior, tend to artifact at the top and bottom of the screen when walking north and south on the world map. I haven’t begun to try to tinker with the video settings in order to alleviate this problem, but I imagine the fix is in there somewhere.

I seemed to be having a problem restoring from save states when I built my first RPi/RetroArch box back in early October, 2012. If I changed to a different emulator (and possibly to another game within the same emulator), I lost the ability to later load from a save state. The load would fail. I could, however, successfully save and load game states as long as I stayed within a single game. It doesn’t seem to be a very common problem, however, as I’ve only found one thread that describes exactly my initial problem, and that was for RetroArch on the PS3: http://forum.themaister.net/viewtopic.php?id=231. In that thread, the OP pinpoints the problem to changing emulators, after which the save state files cannot be loaded. To my mind, this indicates the problem lies outside the save state files themselves. Resolving this problem was one of the reasons I rebuilt the whole thing from scratch in late January, 2013.

But sadly, my problem was not resolved with the rebuild and in some ways was actually worse after the rebuild. Not only could I neither save nor load states in games with save state files created before the rebuild, but now, instead of the save/load message that is typically output to the screen as yellow letters, I just got a black box (possibly with black letters, rendering the text impossible to read) whenever I triggered a save or load. After I renamed or deleted the old savestate files in the ROM’s directory, I was able to create a new save state without issue and load it.

This was rather disappointing for games that I had been playing for awhile and was relying on the save state, but I guess I can live with starting over.

A possible work around to this problem, for games that support saving in-game, is to use the rewind feature instead of save states to undo mistakes as soon as they happen, and then rely on the in-game saves. For games that don’t support in-game saves, I guess I’m S.O.L. until I get it figured out.

I was having a few problems with xboxdrv and wireless controllers, in the early days. When using the USB Xbox 360 Wireless Gaming Receiver for Windows through a USB hub, approximately 60 seconds after launching xboxdrv, xboxdrv will crash and I’ll get an error stating [ERROR] USBController::on_read_data(): failed to resubmit USB transfer: LIBUSB_ERROR_NO_DEVICE followed by Shutdown complete. This doesn’t happen when using a wired controller or when the USB Xbox 360 Wireless Gaming Receiver for Windows is connected directly to the USB port on the RPi, so maybe a powered USB hub would produce a better experience. I’ve also heard that the Xbox 360 Wireless Gaming Receiver for Windows draws a lot of power, so it may be a good idea to get it working through a powered hub anyway.

I remember her hair differently...

I remember her hair differently…

You can stop reading now. Everything below this point are my notes on how things used to be done.

The manual way of starting up xboxdrv for a single controller is to just run

sudo xboxdrv --trigger-as-button --silent

at the command prompt each time you turn on the RPi, but you could start this up automatically, too. If you don’t run it with sudo, you’ll get an error: USBController::USBController(): libusb_open() failed: LIBUSB_ERROR_ACCESS. The creator’s proposed workaround is to add the current user to the ‘root’ group, which I’m not terribly keen on, so I’d be content with just continuing to run it with sudo. If you want to see your joystick axis and button press information output to the console, just run sudo xboxdrv without the –silent switch, but this eats up some CPU, so use the –silent switch when you’re going to be playing games.

The automatic way of starting up xboxdrv for a single wireless controller is to add the command to /etc/rc.local, which is a file that runs (like a script) at the end of multi-user boot levels (think: before a user logs on). It makes sense to start up xboxdrv automatically, particularly because we want to pass some arguments that would be annoying to type each time. While connected via PuTTY, start by backing up /etc/rc.local with

sudo cp /etc/rc.local /etc/rc.local.bak

Open /etc/rc.local using the vim text editor with

sudo vim /etc/rc.local

Arrow down to the line immediately before exit 0, hit the Esc key, and type or copy and paste

xboxdrv --dpad-as-button --trigger-as-button --wid 0 --led 2 --deadzone 4000 --silent &

then hit Enter, and type

sleep 1

Hit Esc again, type


Then hit Enter to save the changes and exit the editor. Reboot the RPi again, and now you should see that the Xbox 360 driver is up and running even before the login prompt appears. How’s that for awesome?

(The official instructions in the Using a single controller section of the xboxdrv manual at http://pingus.seul.org/~grumbel/xboxdrv/xboxdrv.html don’t seem to apply to the RPi at this point, as the xpad driver isn’t loaded and the upinput and joydev modules are loaded during boot.)

If you want to be even more slick and automatically start up support for up to 4 controllers, check out https://github.com/petrockblog/RetroPie-Setup/wiki/Setting-up-the-XBox360-controller.

(I initially had some problems with analog joysticks and triggers not registering in the retroarch-joyconfig utility until I started passing the –trigger-as-button switch when launching xboxdrv. However, even when the analog sticks are mapped by retroarch-joyconfig, I don’t have the use of them in NES games like Metroid, and that’s mostly OK by me, except that the dpad on the Xbox 360 controller has always seemed horribly sloppy to me, even in Xbox games. For some reason, the analog joystick movements would be picked up by xboxdrv if I omitted the –trigger-as-button switch, but not by the retroarch-joyconfig utility. The problem with the triggers is that without the –trigger-as-button switch, each trigger pull and release counts as two analog axis movements. This is desired for games where the trigger acts as a brake or gas pedal, but NES and SNES games have little or no use for this. Analog joysticks behave the same way, throwing tons of input at the slightest movement when the NES really just needs to know when it’s been pushed and released. It’s possible to turn the analog sticks off entirely by passing xboxdrv the –dpad-only switch, but what I really want is to accurately control NES games with the far more reliable left analog stick – something I’m still working on.) Update: the workaround for this is to use a NES-specific retroarch.cfg file that maps the left analog stick to the same buttons as the dpad – leaving you without a dpad in NES but with the left-analog stick.

(If you get an error “Couldn’t open joystick #0.”, it probably means that xboxdrv needs to be restarted first.)

This post is a collection of some of the more commonly used command line utilities when doing basic troubleshooting in a Windows domain environment.

To open a command window within a directory from Windows Explorer, hold the Shift key and right-click on the directory, then choose “Open command window here”.


Displays the name of the current directory or changes the current folder.

Used within a command window to change the current active directory, allowing navigation through the computer’s mapped drives and their directory structures.


Displays the current directory path.

Moves to the root of the current drive.

cd /d e:
Moves to the E: drive from another drive. It’s also possible to move to a different drive by typing only the drive letter followed by a colon, ex: D:

Moves to the parent directory of the current directory (move up one directory toward the root).

cd “People to sue next”
Moves from the current directory into the subdirectory named “People to sue next”. A handy trick is to just type the first few characters of the directory name, and then hit the tab key to auto-complete the rest of the directory name from the first alphabetical match found, and even wrap it in double quotes if it contains spaces. For example, the same command as above can by typed: cd peop <tab>

If the current directory contains multiple matches for the characters typed, hitting tab again will cycle to the next match.

The tab method can be used more than once, to chain together a series of directories. For example, to move to the C:\Users\Public\Documents directory from a command prompt at the root of C:, one can type: cd u <tab> p <tab> d <tab> <tab> <enter>


Displays a list of a directory’s files and subdirectories.


Displays the directories and files in the current directory.

dir /s
Displays the directories and files in the current directory and all sub directories.

Dir can also be used to search for a file, and in many cases it works better than the Windows Explorer search.

dir c:\findme.txt /s
Displays a list of all instances of a file named “findme.txt” on the C: drive. It’s also possible to navigate to a location, such as the root of C:, and type: dir /s findme.txt to search that location and all subdirectories for a file named “findme.txt”.

Wildcards are allowed in the form of an asterisk. For example, type: dir c:\*.doc /s to search the C: drive for all files with a .doc or .docx extension (I’m not sure why it also locates .docx files, when there is no wildcard specified at the end of the extension, but it does).

Another command line utility for searching for files is where, but the syntax is slightly more complicated.


Refreshes local and Active Directory-based Group Policy settings, including security settings.

If you absolutely must reapply all settings, you can use the /force switch. After reading about the difference between gupdate and gpupdate /force, I now feel that gupdate is sufficient to reapply group policy nearly all of the time, and the /force switch shouldn’t automatically be used.


Reapplies group policy.


Displays Group Policy settings and Resultant Set of Policy (RSOP) for a user or a computer.


gpresult /r
Displays RSoP summary data, which includes the last time group policy was applied, from which server group policy was applied, and the groups for which the current user is a member.

gpresult /h gpreport.html
Generates a report of the applied group policy settings and saves it in HTML format as a file named gpreport.html. When generating a report as a user that is not a local administrator, either supply a full path to a valid location for gpreport.html, or navigate to a location (like the Public Documents directory) before running the command, or else the utility may be unable to create the report due to insufficient rights to the current directory.


Displays all current TCP/IP network configuration values and refreshes Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and Domain Name System (DNS) settings. Used without parameters, ipconfig displays the IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway for all adapters.


Display the computer’s IP address and default gateway, for each network adapter.

ipconfig /all
Displays full TCP/IP information, including the MAC address, DHCP server, and DNS servers, for each network adapter.

net use

Connects a computer to or disconnects a computer from a shared resource, or displays information about computer connections. The command also controls persistent net connections. Used without parameters, net use retrieves a list of network connections.


net use
Lists all of the computer’s connections (mapped network drives).

net use e: \\ComputerName\ShareName
Maps the E: drive to the ShareName shared resource on the ComputerName computer. To map the local E: drive to the C: drive (which is a hidden share) of a remote machine named Loomer, type: net use e: \\loomer\c$

net use e: /delete
Removes the connection currently mapped to the local E: drive.

If you are connecting to a network share that your regular account does not have rights to access, you will be prompted for a username. You will need to also supply the domain, ex: domainusername


Displays information that you can use to diagnose Domain Name System (DNS) infrastructure.


nslookup <ipaddress or computername>
Queries the local computer’s default DNS name server for information on the specified IP address or computer name. Supply either piece of information and nslookup will return both pieces. It’s also possible to specify a particular DNS name server to be queried, which is useful when troubleshooting whether DNS is propagating/replicating correctly.


Verifies IP-level connectivity to another TCP/IP computer by sending Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Echo Request messages. The receipt of corresponding Echo Reply messages are displayed, along with round-trip times. Ping is the primary TCP/IP command used to troubleshoot connectivity, reachability, and name resolution.

You can use ping to test both the computer name and the IP address of the computer. If pinging the IP address is successful, but pinging the computer name is not, you might have a name resolution problem.


ping <ipaddress or computername>
Makes four attempts to contact the computer at the specified IP Address or with the specified computer name, and reports back whether the machine could be contacted and the time taken for the request to travel to the remote computer, be acknowledged, and the acknowledgement received by the local computer.

ping <ipaddress or computername> -t
Repeatedly attempts to contact the remote computer until interrupted by pressing Ctrl+Break or Ctrl+C. This is sometimes called a persistent ping.


Displays detailed configuration information about a computer and its operating system, including operating system configuration, security information, product ID, and hardware properties, such as RAM, disk space, and network cards.

The systeminfo command also reveals installed hotfixes and some information about the computer that isn’t readily available in Device Manager or other MMC Snap-ins, such as the BIOS version.


Displays information about the local computer.

systeminfo /s computername /u domainuser
Displays information about a remote computer named computername.

systeminfo /s computername | find “System Model:”
Retrieves information about a remote computer named computername, but pipes the output of systeminfo to the find command, which returns only the line containing the string “System Model:”. This output in the command window shows only “System Model:” followed by the model of the remote computer.

The systeminfo report can be sent to a text file, ex: systeminfo > systeminforeport.txt

Bonus commands


Returns the media access control (MAC) address and list of network protocols associated with each address for all network cards in each computer, either locally or across a network.


getmac /v
Shows MAC addresses for the local computer.

getmac /s computername /u domainusername /v
Shows MAC addresses for a remote computer named computername while authenticating as a different user.

(Need to test this.)


Sends a message to a user (this may be turned off in many environments). Run msg /? for usage information.

Ardamis.com is on the map – the internet map, that is! /knee-slap

The internet map is a graphical representation of a site’s relative traffic, with over 350 thousand sites are represented. It’s unclear where the data comes from, but it’s flattering to be included.

The Internet Map

The Internet Map

Ardamis.com’s location puts it in a cluster of tech-related sites, right next to apachefriends.org and not too distant from php.net.

While not quite as wickedly awesome as The Scale of the Universe 2, it’s worth spending a few minutes exploring.

I needed to insert a short delay between two processes, so I whipped up a little VBScript that accepts an argument in seconds and then sleeps for that amount of time. If no argument is passed, it sleeps for 3 seconds. It writes to the Application event log before it sleeps and after it wakes.

Usage: sleep.vbs 5

It could be better, sure, but I’m humble about it. It doesn’t validate that the argument is an integer, for example. But it does the trick when used correctly.


Option Explicit

'Accepts input in seconds and converts the input to microtime, then sleeps for that long

Dim WshShell
Dim strEventInfo
Dim intSeconds, intMicrotime

Set WshShell = CreateObject("WScript.Shell")

If WScript.Arguments.Count > 0 Then
	intSeconds = WScript.Arguments.Item(0)
	intSeconds = 3
End If

intMicrotime = intSeconds * 1000

LogEvent "The sleep.vbs script is sleeping for " & intSeconds & " seconds."

'Sleep briefly to allow processes to finish
WScript.Sleep intMicrotime 

LogEvent "The sleep.vbs script is done sleeping."

'* Subroutine: LogEvent(strEventInfo)
'*   Creates a Windows Event Log information entry with the specified text
Sub LogEvent(strEventInfo)
	WshShell.LogEvent 4, strEventInfo
End Sub

I’m not an electrician, and my understanding of the Code is admittedly flimsy, but I believe that it’s illegal to use 3-prong grounding receptacles on 2-wire circuts (which is the arrangement that exists in most of the rooms in our house). I’m also fuzzy about whether doing any work at all, even to just replace outlets and ground them, requires that I replace the wiring with proper 3-wire, such as Romex. That uncertainty not withstanding, I’ve decided to take it upon myself to begin improving the situation by replacing all of the open ground receptacles with new receptacles and ground them to the box. Thankfully, Chicago has long required solid metal conduit, which ought to provide the ground, though I’m finding that there just isn’t a ground wire at all in many of the boxes. I suspect that someone came along 20-years ago and replaced the 2-prong outlets with 3-prong grounded outlets, and just didn’t ground them. In the worst-case scenario, where a ground wire to the box still doesn’t effectively ground the receptacle, my plan is to install a 3-prong GFCI outlet (which I understand will need to be labeled No Equipment Ground on the cover plate).

To make sure I don’t mess up too badly, I’ve been reading up on residential wiring, and have watched quite a few videos on how to replace outlets. One of the best videos I’ve found was by Joseph Matson, a 35-year union electrician. He mostly does woodworking videos, but his video on how to install an electrical outlet is absolutely top notch.

I found the use of tails out from the receptacle to be genius. Sure, it adds some bulk, but the advantage of giving current a means of bypassing the receptacle obviously outweighs the nuisance of stuffing a few extra inches of wire and some wire nuts into the box.

The only thing I wished he addressed in the video is the final touch of wrapping of the outlet in elecrical tape to cover the terminal screws. I still do this because this is how I was taught decades ago by my electrician uncle. I understand that it was used more when metal boxes were standard, to prevent the terminal screws from coming into contact with the side of the box, but I feel it’s still a neat way to tidy up at the end.

Mr. Matson also has a tutorial on how to install a single pole electrical switch, and replacing a few of the light switches may become my next project. (I’m partial to those switches that firmly snap into one position or another with a near-silent thwap.)

I happen to have two rolls of electrical tape and a handful of receptacles and solidly thwapping switches laying around, so all I really need is some 6-inch lengths of 12 AWG wire for the ground wire and some 1032 ground screws. But as long as I’m shopping, I may as well stock the larder and also get some tough-looking lineman’s pliers like Joe uses.

My Home Depot shopping list:

Irwin 9.5 in. North American Lineman’s Pliers $16.57
Ideal Green 12 AWG Solid Pigtails with Screws (5-Pack) $2.97
Southwire Romex SIMpull 25 ft. 12-2 NM-B Wire $16.44
Ideal 76B Red Wire Nuts (100-Pack) $7.98